About Initial Public Offerings (IPO)
A corporate may raise capital in the primary market by way of an initial public offer, rights issue or private placement. An Initial Public Offer (IPO) is the selling of securities to the public in the primary market. It is the largest source of funds with long or indefinite maturity for the company.
What is Book Building?
SEBI guidelines defines Book Building as "a process undertaken by which a demand for the securities proposed to be issued by a body corporate is elicited and built-up and the price for such securities is assessed for the determination of the quantum of such securities to be issued by means of a notice, circular, advertisement, document or information memoranda or offer document".
Book Building is basically a process used in Initial Public Offer (IPO) for efficient price discovery. It is a mechanism where, during the period for which the IPO is open, bids are collected from investors at various prices, which are above or equal to the floor price. The offer price is determined after the bid closing date.
As per SEBI guidelines, an issuer company can issue securities to the public though prospectus in the following manner:
- 100% of the net offer to the public through book building process
- 75% of the net offer to the public through book building process and 25% at the price determined through book building. The Fixed Price portion is conducted like a normal public issue after the Book Built portion, during which the issue price is determined.
The concept of Book Building is relatively new in India. However it is a common practice in most developed countries.
Difference between Book Building Issue and Fixed Price Issue
In Book Building securities are offered at prices above or equal to the floor prices, whereas securities are offered at a fixed price in case of a public issue. In case of Book Building, the demand can be known everyday as the book is built. But in case of the public issue the demand is known at the close of the issue.